Does conversion therapy help people change their sexual orientation?
General Reference (not clearly pro or con)
The American Psychological Association, a national organization of professional psychologists, issued the following statements in its article titled "Resolution on Appropriate Affirmative Responses to Sexual Orientation Distress and Change Efforts," posted on its website, APA.org, in Aug. 2009:
"There are no studies of adequate scientific rigor to conclude whether or not recent SOCE [Sexual Orientation Change Efforts] do or do not work to change a person's sexual orientation. Scientifically rigorous older work in this area... found that sexual orientation... was unlikely to change due to efforts designed for this purpose. Some individuals appeared to learn how to ignore or limit their attractions. However, this was much less likely to be true for people whose sexual attractions were initially limited to people of the same sex.
Although sound data on the safety of SOCE are extremely limited, some individuals reported being harmed by SOCE. Distress and depression were exacerbated. Belief in the hope of sexual orientation change followed by the failure of the treatment was identified as a significant cause of distress and negative self-image...
[S]ome individuals modified their sexual orientation identity (i.e., group membership and affiliation), behavior, and values... They did so in a variety of ways and with varied and unpredictable outcomes, some of which were temporary... Based on the available data, additional claims about the meaning of those outcomes are scientifically unsupported."
The American Psychiatric Association, in it's May 2000 position paper "Therapies Focused on Attempts to Change Sexual Orientation," stated that:
"As a general principle, a therapist should not determine the goal of treatment either coercively or through subtle influence. Psychotherapeutic modalities to convert or 'repair' homosexuality are based on developmental theories whose scientific validity is questionable.
Furthermore, anecdotal reports of 'cures' are counterbalanced by anecdotal claims of psychological harm. In the last four decades, 'reparative' therapists have not produced any rigorous scientific research to substantiate their claims of cure. Until there is such research available, APA recommends that ethical practitioners refrain from attempts to change individuals' sexual orientation, keeping in mind the medical dictum, do no harm."
Does conversion therapy help people change their sexual orientation?
Robert L. Spitzer, MD, Professor of Biometric Research at Columbia University, wrote in his study "Can Some Gay Men and Lesbians Change their Sexual Orientation? 200 Participants Reporting a Change from Homosexual to Heterosexual Orientation," published in the Oct. 2003 issue of Archives of Sexual Behavior:
"This study tested the hypothesis that some individuals whose sexual orientation is predominantly homosexual can, with some form of reparative therapy, become predominantly heterosexual. The participants were 200 self-selected individuals (143 males, 57 females) who reported at least some minimal change from homosexual to heterosexual orientation that lasted at least 5 years...
The majority of participants gave reports of change from a predominantly or exclusively homosexual orientation before therapy to a predominantly or exclusively heterosexual orientation in the past year. Reports of complete change were uncommon. Female participants reported significantly more change than did male participants...
Thus, there is evidence that change in sexual orientation following some form of reparative therapy does occur in some gay men and lesbians."
[Editor's Note: Dr. Spitzer retracted this study in Apr. 2012 in a letter to Ken Zucker, the editor of Archives of Sexual Behavior, quoted by TruthWinsOut.org in its Apr. 25, 2012 report "Exclusive: Dr. Robert Spitzer Apologizes to Gay Community for Infamous 'Ex-Gay' Study":
"I offered several (unconvincing) reasons why it was reasonable to assume that the subject’s reports of change were credible and not self-deception or outright lying. But the simple fact is that there was no way to determine if the subject’s accounts of change were valid.
I believe I owe the gay community an apology for my study making unproven claims of the efficacy of reparative therapy. I also apologize to any gay person who wasted time and energy undergoing some form of reparative therapy because they believed that I had proven that reparative therapy works with some 'highly motivated' individuals."]
New Directions Ministries stated in an article published on its website titled "Homosexuality and the Possibility of Change, An Ongoing Research Project" (accessed Jan. 12, 2005):
"Among the 31 studies we reviewed, we found a total of 45 persons who experienced a full sexual orientation shift. Some studies also provided evidence that some homosexual persons are able to 'acquire' heterosexual behaviour (86 persons). By this we mean that they gained the ability to interact sexually in satisfying ways with someone of the opposite sex. And we found evidence for partial shifts in sexual orientation (287 persons). In a partial shift, an exclusively homosexual person acquires heterosexual attractions and desires, but with some degree of homosexuality remaining...
Our research has shown the statement 'homosexuals can't change' to be a generalization. Various sources provide evidence for a partial or full shift in sexual orientation. Such evidence does not mean that every homosexual person should change. It does not mean that everyone can change. It does not mean that change is easy. It does mean that, at least for some people, change of sexual orientation is possible."
Qazi Rahman, PhD, Lecturer in Psychobiology at the University of East London, was quoted in an Oct. 2, 2003 article titled "Row as Researcher Claims Gays Can Be 'Straightened'," published in the Guardian:
main concern is the method. He [Spitzer] relied on self-reports from a
select sample of individuals. They were not your average gay or lesbain
man -- they were mostly from ex-gay ministries and organisations
involved in reparation.
strongly believe in academic freedom. The results should have been
disseminated -- whether they should be published in a reasonably
prestigious publication I'm not so sure."
The Guardian continued by noting:
Rahman said that the existing research indicated that the seeds of
sexuality are sown in the 'hard wiring' of the brain before birth."
Gregory M. Herek, PhD, Professor of Psychology at the University of California at Davis, stated in his article "The APA Resolution on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation," posted to his UC Davis website (accessed Jan. 12, 2005):
"It is highly doubtful that the so-called 'conversion therapies' and 'reparative therapies' are actually able to change a person's sexual orientation. Claims about their success are based on scattered anecdotal reports, not on rigorous scientific studies that have been subjected to review by other scientists.
Some individuals with a strong motivation to become heterosexual – often based on intense religious beliefs – claim to have changed their sexual orientation as a result of these therapies. Even if their claims about changing are accepted, however, there is no evidence that such change was brought about by the therapy. The change – if it occurred – may well have happened without therapy. And for every story about someone whose sexual orientation was supposedly converted to heterosexuality, there are many other reports of people who tried unsuccessfully to change and who endured a great deal of psychological pain and suffering in the process."