Professor in the Department of Counseling of the Educational Psychology & Research at the University of Memphis
Not Clearly Pro or Con to the question "Is Sexual Orientation Determined at Birth?"
"Differentiation of human sexual orientation, particularly bisexuality, has been little studied. Most studies have lumped bisexuals with homosexuals. Some authors have overgeneralized the results of animal studies as applying to humans. While animal models can provide useful hypotheses, human sexual orientation is unique. Therefore, conclusions about human sexuality based on animal research are suspect. Human sexual orientation is influenced by biological, cognitive, cultural and subcultural variables in interaction, leading to multiple types of heterosexuals, bisexuals, and homosexuals. Understanding of human sexual orientation will improve only if these factors are accounted for in research and theory."
"Biology of Bisexuality: Critique and Observations," Journal of Homosexuality, 1995